Window replacement: Unrealized benefits to building owners

Most U.S. buildings currently in use will continue to be until 2050 and, eventually, will require renovation. Helping building and property managers evaluate and maximize the benefits of window system renovation and upgrades, Apogee Enterprises, Inc.’s Building Retrofit Strategy Team offers a new 28-page publication. “Window replacement: Unrealized benefits to building owners” is available free for download at http://www.apog.com/documents/ApogeeRetro_WhtP.pdf.

“Replacing aging windows with new, high-performance systems provide a better environment for the building’s occupants and greater value for the building owner,” says John Bendt, vice president of Apogee’s Building Retrofit Strategy Team.

“Window systems and components have evolved significantly since the 1980s,” explains Kevin Robbins, Apogee’s Building Retrofit Strategy Team account manager. “About half of all U.S. commercial and institutional buildings were constructed prior to this period, which presents a significant opportunity for owners and occupants to benefit from façade improvements and window replacement.”

Bendt continues, “Among the many benefits, modern window systems improve the appearance and performance of aging buildings. New, high-performance glass and aluminum frames with thermal barriers help save energy, reduce maintenance, lower vacancy rates, increase rental rates, provide a better environment for the building’s occupants and creates greater value for the building owner and enhance occupants’ satisfaction and comfort.”

SUNY Fredonia Campus, Andrews Complex, Photos provided by Lauren M. Kaufmann, Flynn Battaglia Architects, PC

Describing these benefits and best practices in achieving them, the paper shares nine case studies along with detailed considerations regarding energy payback, fossil fuel savings equivalents, code compliance and green standards, environmental stewardship, tax credits, product selection and renovation specification tips, plus a glossary of industry terms and acronyms.

The paper’s projects range from the 1800s to the 1970s with geographies from Boston to Portland, Oregon, and include the State University of New York (SUNY) Fredonia Campus’ Andews Complex featuring Tubelite‘s storefront and entrance systems. As many of the project examples demonstrate, re-cladding and renovating building exteriors with high-performance window systems can have a significant affect on the building’s energy efficiency. To compare performance data between a building’s existing windows and proposed, new, high-performance, replacements units, Apogee’s Retrofit Strategy Team offers free energy modeling that provides building performance information on annual energy, peak demand, carbon emissions, daylight, glare, and condensation.

“Looking beyond simple energy payback, today’s owners and facility managers consider all the factors involved, including carbon footprint reduction, maintenance savings, and safety and occupant productivity,” adds Robbins. When window replacement is timed in conjunction with an HVAC system upgrade, significant reductions in peak load can yield further savings in equipment costs. For building owners seeking enhancements in security, design criteria for façade renovation also can include blast hazard mitigation, hurricane impact resistance, electronic eavesdropping protection and forced entry deterrence.

“Establishing clear goals, priorities and expectations for building envelope maintenance and renovation will significantly contribute to future success. Working with an experienced building envelope retrofit team that includes the installer and manufacturers, building owners and facility managers will optimize the intended benefits and return on investment,” concludes Bendt.

To learn more about Apogee’s Building Retrofit Strategy Team’s services, or for a copy of “Window replacement: Unrealized benefits to building owners,” please visit http://www.apog.com/renovation.html or contact John Bendt at jbendt@apog.com, 612-790-3137; or Kevin Robbins at krobbins@apog.com, 715-409-0821.

Apogee Enterprises, Inc.’s Building Retrofit Strategy Team, in conjunction with the its businesses, assists building owners and property managers evaluate the benefits of window renovation and upgrades, such as improving the appearance of the building, saving energy, downsizing HVAC loading, reducing maintenance, lowering vacancy rates, increasing rental rates and enhancing the value of the building.

Apogee’s business units supporting these building retrofit strategies include Alumicor; EFCO Corporation; Harmon, Inc.; Linetec; Sotawall; Tubelite Inc.; Viracon, Inc.; and Wausau Window and Wall Systems.

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Tubelite achieves NFRC ACE certification

Tubelite Inc. has been approved by the National Fenestration Ratings Council (NFRC) as a Manufacturer Approved Calculation Entity (ACE) Organization. NFRC is the global leader in delivering energy and related performance ratings and certification for fenestration products and systems.

In addition to the company’s ACE certified individuals in both the engineering and marketing departments, three Tubelite representatives have earned a Certificate of Approval for successfully completing the ACE Training Workshop: client development manager Dan Goodman, and representatives Rick Hillesheim and Matt Tschida of Hillesheim Architectural Products, Inc.

As an NFRC ACE, each is qualified to carry out performance calculations of fenestration products for design support and final certification using the NFRC Component Modeling Approach (CMA) and software tool (CMAST). Through NFRC’s CMAST libraries of approved frames, glass and spacer components, users can configure fenestration products for a project, and can obtain a U-factor, solar heat gain coefficient and visible transmittance rating for those products. Performance values are then compared to the energy requirements of local energy codes to determine compliance.

Performance of specific Tubelite frame-glass combinations can be obtained from the NFRC Certified Products Directory or the CMA process. In addition to active product listings in the NFRC Certified Products Directory for factory-glazed fenestration, Tubelite has several approved curtainwall, storefront and entrance system products in the CMAST library, and new product variations frequently are added.

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About Tubelite Inc.

Established in 1945, Tubelite celebrates 70 years of dependable service, fabrication and distribution of architectural aluminum products. Part of Apogee Enterprises, Inc., the company is an industry leader in eco-efficient storefront, curtainwall and entrance systems, and recognized for its fast, reliable and consistent delivery. Tubelite’s corporate office, fabrication, warehouse and shipping operations are located in Walker, Michigan. Its Dallas location provides additional fabrication, warehouse and shipping operations, and its facility in Reed City, Michigan, houses the company’s aluminum extrusion operation.

Tubelite and its staff are members of the American Architectural Manufacturers Association (AAMA), the American Institute of Architects (AIA), the Construction Specifications Institute (CSI), the Glass Association of North America (GANA), the National Fenestration Rating Council (NFRC), the Society of Military Engineers (SAME) and the U.S. Green Building Council (USGBC).

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Media contact: Heather West, 612-724-8760, heather@heatherwest

 

 

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Tubelite’s Kevin Haynes presents “Hurricane Impact Fenestration Design” at CONSTRUCT

Tubelite_KevinHaynesKevin Haynes, architectural specification manager at Tubelite Inc., will present “Hurricane Impact Fenestration Design” as an educational session on Wed., Sept. 7, 11 a.m., at CONSTRUCT in the Austin Convention Center’s room 9AB. CONSTRUCT is held Sept. 7-9 in conjunction with the Construction Specifications Institute (CSI) 60th annual convention.

Registration is required to attend the education sessions at CONSTRUCT. Tubelite is offering courtesy passes for the expo, where Haynes and company represents will be exhibiting in booth #249. Tubelite ForceFront Storm™ hurricane impact-resistant framing and entrance systems will be displayed along with the newest additions to its high-performance Therml=Block™ entrance, storefront and curtainwall systems.

Tubelite_FFStorm_ProjectileTestCONSTRUCT participants who attend Tubelite’s “Hurricane Impact Fenestration Design” presentation will learn about:
* Applicable hurricane impact codes and standards;
* Hurricane protective glazing systems – glass types, framing systems, doors and hardware;
* Design criteria for impact resistant glazing – wall zones vs. corners, large and small missile, anchors and substrates; and
* Hurricane impact testing and certification requirements.

The course is approved for CSI members earning credits toward their Certified Construction Product Representative (CCPR) renewal. It also is one of several courses offered by Tubelite that is approved by the American Institute of Architects’ Continuing Education System (AIA/CES) for one Learning Unit in health, safety and welfare (1.0 HSW LU). Please visit the Architectural Consulting web page for a list of contacts and presentations.

 

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About Tubelite Inc.

Established in 1945, Tubelite celebrates 70 years of dependable service, fabrication and distribution of architectural aluminum products. Part of Apogee Enterprises, Inc., the company is an industry leader in eco-efficient storefront, curtainwall and entrance systems, and recognized for its fast, reliable and consistent delivery. Tubelite’s corporate office, fabrication, warehouse and shipping operations are located in Walker, Michigan. Its Dallas location provides additional fabrication, warehouse and shipping operations, and its facility in Reed City, Michigan, houses the company’s aluminum extrusion operation.

Tubelite and its staff are members of the American Architectural Manufacturers Association (AAMA), the American Institute of Architects (AIA), the Construction Specifications Institute (CSI), the Glass Association of North America (GANA), the National Fenestration Rating Council (NFRC), the Society of Military Engineers (SAME) and the U.S. Green Building Council (USGBC).

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Media contact: Heather West, 612-724-8760, heather@heatherwest

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Shared Learnings: “FORWARD FACING: Innovations that are Moving Building Enclosure Design, Fabrication, Installation and Performance in Bold New Directions”

Supporting design professionals’ industry knowledge and development, Tubelite offers a new continuing education course, “FORWARD FACING: Innovations that are Moving Building Enclosure Design, Fabrication, Installation, and Performance in Bold New Directions,” available now in the September issue of Architectural Record and online Continuing Education Center.

The course is approved by the American Institute of Architects’ Continuing Education System (AIA/CES) for one Learning Unit in health, safety and welfare (1.0 HSW LU).

Those who complete the course will learn about the aesthetics, performance, sustainability, resilience and life cycle benefits of innovative building enclosures, including storefront and curtainwall systems. Specific educational objectives include:

  1. Identify and recognize the significance of building enclosure and façade components in both the design and performance of buildings.
  2. Assess the performance aspects of exterior wall and fenestration systems as they relate to code compliance, energy performance, durability and sustainability.
  3. Explain the importance of proper design and construction techniques to help assure that systems perform as intended.
  4. Determine ways to incorporate the principles presented into specific building projects as shown in case studies.

Click here for more information about Tubelite’s AIA/CES programs.

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AIA New York, Procrastinators’ Days, Dec. 4-6

TL_UFactor_NFRCTubelite’s architectural specification manager Tom Minnon presents “Determining Fenestration U-Factors” (1 LU|HSW – T5: A4442E) at the AIA New York chapter’s Procrastinators’ Days on Thurs., Dec. 4, 1:30-2:30 p.m.

With nearly four decades of industry experience, Minnon is a LEED® Accredited Professional by the U.S. Green Building Council and a Certified FenestrationMaster™ by the American Architectural Manufacturers Association.

Helping architects earn up to 18 of their continuing education Learning Units, the chapter’s event is held Dec. 4-6 at the Center for Architecture. Learn more at http://aiany.aiany.org/index.php?section=procrastinators

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Shared Learnings: FenestrationMaster

by Tom Minnon, CFM, LEED® AP, CDT, Eastern Region Sales Manager for Tubelite Inc.

This month, I am proud to add Certified FenestrationMaster (CFM) to the list of certifications, accreditations and accomplishments I’ve gained during my 38 years of experience in this ever-changing industry. I am one of the first people to earn this certification through AAMA’s FenestrationMasters™ program.

FenestrationAssociate is offered for entry-level certification and is available to all. FenestrationMaster is the advanced level and requires the candidate to have either six years fenestration product-related experience, or a four-year degree in engineering, architecture or applied sciences plus four years of industry experience. Those who choose to enroll in the program receive a Candidate Guide, Study Notebook and three-month access to AAMA’s Study Resource Center with read-only access to AAMA documents referenced in the courses.

While I may have been qualified as a candidate for the advanced-level certification, I still needed to do my homework and successfully complete the 32 in-depth, online courses. These include:

Group 1
• Window Selection
• Glass Selection
• Requirements of NAFS-08 Standard (and variances from earlier editions)
• Specialty Tests (blast, impact, tornado, acoustics)

Group 2
• Profile Performance and Material Considerations
• Coatings and Finishes

Group 3
• Hardware, Weatherstrip and Weatherseals
• Sealants and Adhesives Used during Factory Fabrication

Group 4
• Code Requirements
• History of the I-Codes & Current Requirements
• AAMA Certification and I-Code Compliance
• Special Code Requirements: ADA, WOCD, fire safety, safety glazing
• Energy Efficiency and Thermal Performance
• ICC energy code requirements and Energy Star requirements
• Thermal Performance Certification versus Testing
• Skylights for Daylighting

Group 5
• Installation
• Commercial Installation Standard Practice
• Residential Installation
• Flashing
• Field Testing and Forensic Evaluation
• Fenestration Anchorage

Group 6
• Aluminum Curtain Wall Design
• Aluminum Storefronts and Entrances
• Energy and the Architectural Fenestration Industry

Since I have been involved in commercial fenestration most of my career, it was challenging to learn some of the courses that involved PVC and fiberglass windows, residential installation standards and anchorage.

Once I finished the coursework and spent several hours studying the material, I felt prepared and completed the exam. The final exam must be completed at an official testing center or using AAMA-authorized proctor. The test itself was straightforward and I felt confident about the results. If a candidate fails, they are encouraged to brush up on their studies and retake the test. They have up to three attempts in 12 months to pass the exam.

For me, scheduling the exam was probably the most difficult task. As my years of experience add up, so too do my professional responsibilities. I’m proud to be part of a company that continues to grow and thrive, especially in light of the economic climate. As the company expands its products, its locations and its knowledge, we continue to keep our customers as the top priority.

As I consider my commitments for the New Year, I must say good-bye for now. Thank you to Key Communications for the opportunity, to those who took the time to comment or email me, and to all of you who took the time to read. It’s been a pleasure to share this last year with you.

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Tom Minnon, CFM, LEED® AP, CDT, is the eastern region sales manager for Tubelite Inc., serving clients from Maine to Georgia. With nearly four decades of industry experience and many professional accreditations, he regularly provides educational and consultative support to architects, buildings owners and glazing contractors regarding storefront, curtainwall, entrances and daylight control systems.

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Shared Learnings: It’s That Time of Year

by Tom Minnon, LEED® AP, CDT, Eastern Region Sales Manager for Tubelite Inc.

Summer sets as the autumn tradeshow season dawns. GlassBuild America, Sept. 10-12 in Atlanta, and CSI Construct, Sept. 25-27 in Nashville, bring that bittersweet reminder that we have entered the third quarter. This year’s expos are expected to showcase new fenestration products to meet commercial buildings’ increasingly stringent performance and code requirements.

Last October, Hurricane Sandy proved to be the second-costliest hurricane in U.S. history with damages estimated at $68 billion. The 2013 hurricane season already has produced four named storms. Entering into the peak of the season, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) issued an update in August predicting a 70% chance of seeing above-average activity in the Atlantic with potentially 13-19 named storms, six to nine hurricanes, and three to five of those hurricanes becoming major events.

Hurricane impact-resistant fenestration products help address commercial building owners’ concerns for mitigating damage to their property and protecting occupants from shattered glass and wind-borne debris. A breadth of storefront and entrance systems are available to comply with High-Velocity Hurricane Zone (HVHZ) wind zones, as well as Miami-Dade and Florida Building Codes.

DOE_EnergyCodes_map_imgAs Model Energy Codes become a reality, more building owners will seek fenestration systems offering high thermal performance. The U.S. Department of Energy’s Building Energy Codes Program maps current and projected commercial building energy code adoption activity. For example, in Georgia where GlassBuild is held, ASHRAE 90.1-2010/2012 IECC or equivalent is projected for adoption by the end of 2015. In California, this already has been adopted.

Energy efficiency, recycled content and daylighting remain key criteria in LEED® v.4, recently approved by the U.S. Green Building Council (USGBC). In Tennessee where Construct is held, the USGBC reports that four “municipal governments have made policy commitments that advance better building practices by rewarding leadership with LEED… Tennessee state ranks 22nd in the nation with 529 commercial buildings that are LEED registered and certified, totaling more than 63 million square feet.”

This November, Pennsylvania will host USGBC members and allied professionals in Philadelphia for the annual Greenbuild International Conference and Expo. The state ranks fifth in the nation with 1,816 commercial buildings that are LEED registered and certified. Detailed market reports are available for download online at USGBC.org under the Resources page.

USGBC enjoys membership crossover with the American Institute of Architects (AIA). While AIA champions green building goals, it no longer requires its members to specifically earn continuing education credits for sustainable design. Although there are differences by state, AIA members now are required to complete 12 hours of health, safety and welfare (HSW) education, where eight hours previously were needed.

Thousands of AIA members earn these credits at their local chapters’ annual conferences and conventions, many of which are held during the autumn. A list of AIA’s 300 component organizations, contacts and events can be found at AIA.org under the AIA Chapters page. For example, AIA Illinois annual conference is scheduled for Nov 7-9.

Also is hosted in Illinois, Glass Expo Midwest takes place Oct. 31-Nov. 1 at the Renaissance Schaumburg Convention Center Hotel. Now in its 18th year, the event is conveniently co-located to welcome Fenestration Day attendees.

Whichever tradeshows and conferences you attend this autumn, remember to do more than just attend – participate! If you’re in a seminar, ask the speaker a question. If you’re in the expo hall, make time to see the newest products. If you’re at lunch, strike up a conversation with a colleague. These events are among the few industry forums for face-to-face interaction. Be sure to take advantage of them.

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Tom Minnon, LEED® AP, CDT, is the eastern region sales manager for Tubelite Inc., serving clients from Maine to Georgia. With nearly four decades of industry experience and many professional accreditations, he regularly provides educational and consultative support to architects, buildings owners and glazing contractors regarding storefront, curtainwall, entrances and daylight control systems.

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Shared Learnings: The NFRC Non-Residential Program

by Tom Minnon, LEED® AP, CDT, Eastern Region Sales Manager for Tubelite Inc.

For the past 20 years, the National Fenestration Rating Council (NFRC) has provided a fair, accurate, and credible rating and labeling system for windows, doors, and skylights used in residential construction. Anyone who has shopped for a residential window has seen a label similar to the one below:

ES_NFRC_LabelRatings on the NFRC label have been achieved through standardized test methods at independently operated laboratories. This standardized method allows you to fairly compare window performance of “Manufacturer A” to “Manufacturer B.”

The NFRC testing protocols involve testing of the full window — including glass, frame, spacers, and any other component that is a permanent part of the complete product. This strategy provides a more accurate reflection of how the product will perform in the home than testing of just glass, as the framing and other components influence ratings such as U-Factor, Solar Heat Gain Coefficient (SHGC) and Visible Transmittance (VT).

In commercial storefront and curtainwall glazing systems, glazing contractors combine various components that have not been tested as a complete product. For instance, storefront or curtainwall from one manufacturer; glass, coatings and infill from another; and the insulting glass spacer from yet another.

NFRC’s Component Modeling Approach (CMA) Product Certification Program enables whole product energy performance ratings for non-residential projects. CMA uses a simulation tool called CMA Software Tool (CMAST), which includes a database of online performance data for the three primary components of a fenestration product — glazing, frame, and glass spacer — to generate overall product performance ratings for U-Factor, SHGC and VT. The database is essentially a library that houses data on a wide variety of fenestration components. Microsoft PowerPoint - EduCode Presentation R2 [Read-Only] [Compatibility Mode]

While the CMA program has been around for a number of years, it is just now beginning to be widely used and accepted. CMA’s non-residential energy performance data is used in determining code compliance and for meaningful whole building energy analysis. The certification and rating program is credible, simple, cost effective, fair, uniform and useful.

Though the current non-residential program offered by the NFRC Site-Built program provides consistent and reliable energy performance ratings, the CMA program allows for different segments of the fenestration industry to obtain standardized energy performance ratings for fenestration components and component systems including glass, spacers, and frames.

Once tested by an accredited lab, modeled by an Approved Calculation Entity, validated by an approved Inspection Agency, and entered into the CMAST database, these systems reside in electronic libraries that can be easily accessed by those who wish to determine and/or obtain NFRC energy performance ratings (U-Factor, SHGC, VT) for entire window, entrance, storefront, and curtainwall systems.

The libraries are especially useful to architects and builders for:

  • Designing envelope/fenestration systems for maximum energy efficiency — whether solar control, energy efficiency, daylighting, or passive solar design
  • Comparing the energy performance of different fenestration components and products, and making more informed choices
  • Enforcing – related specified performance to installed performance

In the example below, the total performance characteristics of the total system are as follows —

  • U-Factor: 0.34
  • SHGC: 0.20
  • VT: 0.43
  • LSG: 0.43/0.20 = 2.15 (visible light to solar heat gain)

TL_300ES_NFRC-CMAST

These values are based on the following components:

  • Tubelite’s 400 Series curtainwall with 2.5 x 7.5-inch aluminum framing and fiberglass pressure plate
  • PPG’s Solarban® 70XL low-e glass with 90% argon fill
  • Technoform Glass Insulation’s warm edge spacer

CMA shows how changing one component affects overall energy efficiency and provides information on which components can be combined. Ultimately, the information obtained from CMA can be used to determine a whole product energy performance rating for a fenestration system.

 

Resources:
Efficient Windows Collaborative, http://www.commercialwindows.org/
ENERGY STAR, http://www.energystar.gov
National Fenestration Rating Council, http://www.nfrc.org/05Tubelite_LEED-AP_TomMinnon
Technoform Glass Insulation, http://www.glassinsulation.us/
Tubelite Inc., https://www.tubeliteinc.com

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Tom Minnon, LEED® AP, CDT, is the eastern region sales manager for Tubelite Inc., serving clients from Maine to Georgia. With nearly four decades of industry experience and many professional accreditations, he regularly provides educational and consultative support to architects, buildings owners and glazing contractors regarding storefront, curtainwall, entrances and daylight control systems.

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Shared Learnings: Aluminum Finishing – PVDF Coatings (part 2 of 2)

by Tom Minnon, LEED® AP, CDT, Eastern Region Sales Manager for Tubelite Inc.

Know the Code

When specifying a paint code for your project, always double check for accuracy. The specific code is what drives the ordering process and the achieved color. The color name is only a guideline; many times manufacturers and applicators will have the same paint name for different paint types and colors. Relying on a color name alone can be a risk. As an example, one manufacturer can have 50 paint codes all named “Hartford Green.”

Coated aluminum panels have been tested for performance in the high-salt, high-humidity, and high-UV exposure environment of South Florida. Image courtesy of Linetec.

Coated aluminum panels have been tested for performance in the high-salt, high-humidity, and high-UV exposure environment of South Florida. Image courtesy of Linetec.

Accuracy of the paint code is vital. Paint manufacturer and many applicators have their own coding system for assigning paint codes to colors. Each letter and number within the product formula has a specific meaning related to the color and tint, gloss, primer, topcoat, or the use of mica and metallics. Due to the immeasurable number of different paint codes, one incorrect number or letter within a code can completely change the paint formulation.

Architects’ specifications for fluoropolymer finishes often read as: “PVDF-Based Coating: AAMA 2605, fluoropolymer finish containing minimum 70 percent PVDF resins, color to be selected from manufacturer’s full color range.”

This generic specification makes it very difficult for the aluminum manufacturer and glazing contractor to determine what price level they should include in their quote. Most aluminum manufacturers have a list of stock paint colors that have a lower price point than other colors. Does “manufacturer’s full color range” include all possible colors available from the paint manufacturer? Will it be a two-coat or XL three-coat finish? Whenever possible, the architect should clearly state what color will be required on the project.

AAMA Specifications

AAMA 2603 is typically an interior specification. Baked enamel (acrylic/polyester) paints should meet AAMA 2603. The baked enamel coatings are harder than the fluoropolymer PVDF coatings and often are used for interior application where color retention is not required. These paints are less expensive, but have poor resistance to color fading and chalking.

AAMA 2604 is an “intermediate” specification. A paint meeting this specification would be a 50% fluoropolymer. An application for this paint would be storefront, doors or other high-traffic areas. This finish will provide good color and gloss retention. It also will provide good hardness and abrasion resistance.

AAMA 2605 is the high-performance exterior specification. A paint meeting this specification would be a 70% fluoropolymer. These finishes exhibit outstanding resistance to humidity, color change, chalk, gloss loss and chemicals. An application for this finish would include monumental architectural projects.

TomM_AnodizeTable
Field Repair

Whether your building’s finish has faded and discolored, or your new building has been damaged during construction, it can be corrected on-site with a knowledgeable team and the proper product.

Storefronts and other high-traffic areas may need to be repainted periodically. As good as it is, painted aluminum is not completely maintenance-free, nor does it last forever. Painted aluminum can chip and scratch on high-wear areas such as sliding doors and entrance ways.

For more than 40 years, PVDF-based finishes have held the position as the world’s premiere exterior metal finish. PVDF-based Air Dry System (ADS) offers the same superior weathering properties as factory-appliced PVDF, and can be field-applied on almost any building material, restoring surfaces to last and look like new.

PVDF-based ADS coatings are designed for repairing, restoring and/or repainting the metal on buildings that have a factory-applied PVDF-based coating. These coatings only can be applied by licensed fluoropolymer applicators. PVDF-based ADS coatings are intended for use as a two-coat system. PVDF-based ADS provides very high resistance to fading, chalking, UV degradation and chemical corrosion. PVDF-based ADS restores structures to their original luster, while meeting weathering requirements of AAMA 2605, the most stringent specification for architectural coatings.

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Resources:

* Arkema Kynar
* Linetec05Tubelite_LEED-AP_TomMinnon
* Tubelite Inc.
* Solvay Hylar

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Tom Minnon, LEED® AP, CDT, is the eastern region sales manager for Tubelite Inc., serving clients from Maine to Georgia. With nearly four decades of industry experience and many professional accreditations, he regularly provides educational and consultative support to architects, buildings owners and glazing contractors regarding storefront, curtainwall, entrances and daylight control systems.

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Shared Learnings: Aluminum Finishing – PVDF Coatings (part 1 of 2)

by Tom Minnon, LEED® AP, CDT, Eastern Region Sales Manager for Tubelite Inc.

Fluoropolymer coatings are two-coat systems formulated to provide excellent performance against weathering in normal environments. Suited for architectural product applications — such as storefronts, curtainwalls, windows and louvers — these coatings are highly resistant to chalking, chipping, peeling and fading. They also protect against chemical staining and environmental stresses such as dirt, ultraviolet (UV) radiation and acid rain. The coatings are available in a wide range of earth tone colors and offer excellent color consistency.

“XL” coatings are three- and four-coat systems consisting of a primer, a fluoropolymer color coat, a clear topcoat and sometimes a barrier coat to seal and protect the entire system. A clear top coat is required for one of two reasons, to protect and encapsulate the metallic flake in the topcoat, or to give added UV protection to bright and exotic colors.

These coatings offer the perfect solution for projects such as chlorine rooms, sewage treatment facilities, power plants, paper mills and highly aggressive environments including industrial and seacoast areas where maximum protection against chemical and salt spray corrosion is required.

Please note that paint manufacturers do not recommended using a clear topcoat over a white color paint. The clear topcoat is not required and will not extend warranty periods. The application of a clear coat can affect the tone of the underlying color. The color coat typically shifts toward yellow when a clear is applied. This is due to the fact that clear coats are not “water white” or colorless, but are actually a slightly yellow color. The degree of color change seen with a clear coat over a white is usually deemed unacceptable.

Coated aluminum panels have been tested for performance in the high-salt, high-humidity, and high-UV exposure environment of South Florida. Image courtesy of Linetec.

Coated aluminum panels have been tested for performance in the high-salt, high-humidity, and high-UV exposure environment of South Florida. Image courtesy of Linetec.

Name Your Brand

Kynar or Kynar 500® is not a finished paint. It is a registered trademark brand name for PVDF (polyvinylidene fluoride) resin, as is Hylar 5000®. Arkema is the manufacturer of Kynar and Kynar 500 resin. Solvay is the manufacturer of Hylar 5000 resin.

PVDF resin is the raw material used by licensed formulators to manufacture PVDF-based coatings. When formulated into a coating composition, the paint contains a minimum of 70% by weight of Kynar 500 or Hylar 5000 resin to manufacture a 70% PVDF resin-based coating that meets the highest performance criteria of AAMA 2605.

PPG manufactures Duranar®, Valspar manufactures Fluropon® and AkzoNobel manufactures Trinar® – all are examples of 70%  PVDF coatings that utilize the Kynar 500 and/or Hylar 5000 resin.

The key to a product’s performance is the resin chemistry. For the ultimate in long-term durability, time has shown that PVDF resin is the one to choose. Other coating resins include acrylic, polyester, silicone polyester and urethane.

Why Specify?

To be both functional and decorative, metal must be coated with a finish that beautifies with color and doesn’t chalk; a finish that won’t lose its color and sheen; a finish that won’t pit, chip or age before it’s time. No other coating system withstands the rigors of nature and time like those based on PVDF resins. This high-performance fluoropolymer resin, with its extraordinary capability to retain color and gloss, keeps painted metal looking vibrant and appealing.

While applicators and paint suppliers warrant 70% PVDF finishes for up to 20 years, many more years of service life should be expected.

Get the Lead Out

In the architectural coatings industry, it takes certain pigments to get bright and exotic colors such as reds, oranges and yellows. The most commonly known pigments to achieve these colors are the minerals lead and cadmium. Throughout the years, environmental and health concerns have spurred increasingly stringent regulatory requirements for the use and disposal of both lead and cadmium pigments. As a result, environmentally conscious manufacturers and applicators have refrained from using these pigments in their coating systems.

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Resources:05Tubelite_LEED-AP_TomMinnon

* Arkema Kynar
* Linetec
* Tubelite Inc.
* Solvay Hylar

Watch for part 2 on PVDF Coatings in May and in “Architect’s Guide to Glass and Metal.”

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Tom Minnon, LEED® AP, CDT, is the eastern region sales manager for Tubelite Inc., serving clients from Maine to Georgia. With nearly four decades of industry experience and many professional accreditations, he regularly provides educational and consultative support to architects, buildings owners and glazing contractors regarding storefront, curtainwall, entrances and daylight control systems.

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Shared Learnings: What is Anodizing? (part 2 of 2)

by Tom Minnon, LEED® AP, CDT, Eastern Region Sales Manager for Tubelite Inc.

Specifying Anodized Finishes

The Aluminum Association has developed a system of designation for anodized finishes on aluminum. Specific finishes of the various types are designated by a letter followed by a two-digit numeral. Each designation may be combined into a single composite designation to identify a sequence of operations covering all of the important steps leading to a final complex finish.

Linetec_Anodize1

Almost all finishes used on aluminum may be subdivided into three major categories: mechanical finishes, chemical finishes and coatings.

Descriptions of the most commonly utilized finishes are as follows:

* Mechanical: (M)
M10 – Unspecified as fabricated

* Chemical (C)
C21- Fine matte (eco-friendly etch process)
C22 – Medium matte etch (caustic etch process)

* Anodic Coatings (A)
Architectural Class II (0.4-0.7 mils thick)
A31 – Clear
A32 – Integral Color
A34 – Electrolytically deposited color (two-step)

Architectural Class I (0.7 mil and thicker anodic coating)
A41 – Clear
A44 – Electrolytically deposited color (two-step)

All composite designations are preceded by the letters “AA” to identify them as an Aluminum Association designation.

* Example 1: Aluminum Association (plus) Mechanical Finish (plus) Chemical Etching (plus) Anodic Coating translates to:
Class II Clear Anodized Finish AA‑M10‑C21‑A31 complying with AAMA 611

* Example 2: An Architectural Class I medium bronze electrolytic deposition (two-step) would be designated:
Class I Color Anodized Finish: AA‑M10‑C21‑A44 complying with AAMA 611. Provide color as indicated.

Linetec_Anodize2

Maintenance and Cleaning

As with any finished building material, anodized aluminum requires reasonable care prior to and during installation, and periodic cleaning and maintenance after installation. Although anodized aluminum possesses exceptional resistance to corrosion, discoloration and wear, its natural beauty can be marred by harsh chemicals, rough conditions or neglect. The marks resulting from such mistreatment may be permanent. For example, mortar, cement and other alkaline materials will quickly corrode anodic coatings if allowed to dry on the metal surface.

Surfaces exposed to the atmosphere will collect soil and dirt, the amount of which varies depending on geographic area, environmental conditions, finish and location of the building. More frequent cleaning may be required in heavily industrialized areas compared to rural areas. Seasonal rainfall can reduce washing frequency by removing water-soluble deposits and less adherent soil. In climates where rainfall is low, atmospheric washing of the surface is minimal. These areas may require more frequent cleaning than in areas where rainfall is more prevalent.

Never use aggressive alkaline or acid cleaners on aluminum finishes. Do not use cleaners containing trisodium phosphate, phosphoric acid, hydrochloric acid or similar compounds. It is preferable to clean the metal when shaded. Do not attempt to clean hot, sun-heated surfaces since chemical reactions on hot metal surfaces will be accelerated and non-uniform.

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Resources:

* Aluminum Anodizers Council
* The Aluminum Association
* American Architectural Manufacturers Association
* Linetec
* Tubelite Inc.

**Tubelite_TomMinnon

Tom Minnon, LEED® AP, CDT, is the eastern region sales manager for Tubelite Inc., serving clients from Maine to Georgia. With nearly four decades of industry experience and many professional accreditations, he regularly provides educational and consultative support to architects, buildings owners and glazing contractors regarding storefront, curtainwall, entrances and daylight control systems.

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Shared Learnings: What is Anodizing? (part 1 of 2)

by Tom Minnon, LEED® AP, CDT, Eastern Region Sales Manager for Tubelite Inc.

What is Anodizing?

Anodizing is an electrochemical process that converts aluminum’s metal surface into a decorative, durable, corrosion-resistant, anodic oxide finish. It is readily available for storefront, curtainwall, entrances and daylight control systems.

Exposed to the earth’s atmosphere, aluminum combines with oxygen to form a protective surface film, which inhibits further oxidation of the aluminum. This natural oxide is extremely thin, loosely adhered to the aluminum surface and easily removed by handling. Anodizing is a process, which thickens the natural oxide film resulting in a heavy aluminum oxide film of controlled thickness having the hardness similar to that of a ruby or sapphire. Anodizing is, therefore, a matter of highly controlled oxidation—the enhancement of a naturally occurring phenomenon.

Anodizing uses the base metal – the aluminum alloy – to create a thin, extremely strong and corrosion-resistant finish. The anodized surface is very hard and thus preserves and extends the life of the aluminum product. Architectural aluminum anodic coatings provide good stability to ultraviolet (UV) rays and does not chip or peel.

The anodic oxide structure originates from the aluminum substrate and is composed entirely of aluminum oxide. This aluminum oxide is not applied to the surface like paint or plating, but is fully integrated with the underlying aluminum substrate, so it cannot chip or peel. It has a highly ordered, porous structure that allows for secondary processes such as coloring and sealing.

Anodize_Magnification

Anodizing offers a range of colors in earth tones, such as champagne, bronze-tones and black. Unlike other finishes, anodizing allows the aluminum to maintain its metallic appearance. Clear anodizing does not incorporate any pigments.

When aluminum is anodized, an electrical current is passed through a bath of sulfuric acid (the electrolyte), while the aluminum being treated serves as the anode. This produces a clear film of aluminum oxide on the aluminum’s surface. This layer is mostly porous with a very thin barrier layer at the base. This structure lends itself very well to electrolytic coloring.

Anodizing is a water-based process and uses no volatile organic compounds (VOCs). There are no vehicle solvents, no carrier resins, and any pigmentation used in anodizing is created by extremely small amounts of metals or dye securely locked within the hard surface. No toxic organics are used in anodizing. Recyclability of aluminum is unaltered by anodizing and no intermediate processing is needed for anodized metal to re-enter the recycle chain.

Anodizing is a safe process that is not harmful to human health. An anodized finish is chemically stable, will not decompose and is non-toxic. The anodizing process is non-hazardous and produces no harmful or dangerous by-products. Under U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) rules, conventional anodizing generates no hazardous waste; it does not use VOCs or EPA-listed toxic organics.

Anodized products have an extremely long life span and offer significant economic advantages through maintenance and operating savings. Anodizing is a reacted finish that is integrated with the underlying aluminum for total bonding and unmatched adhesion.

The Anodizing Process

* Clean – The anodize process begins with the material being cleaned in a non-etching alkaline chemical cleaner to remove all shop dirt, water, soluble oils and other unwanted surface contaminates. which may have accumulated on the material during handling and/or manufacturing.

* Rinse – After cleaning, the material is rinsed and is then ready for etching.

* Etch – Etching is an important step during the anodize process. It is designed to dissolve a thin layer on the surface of the aluminum to develop a smooth uniform finish. Most anodizers have changed their etch chemistry from conventional caustic etch to a more eco-friendly acid etch technology.

The eco-friendly acid etch creates an aesthetically appealing, “frostier” appearance that helps hide small defects, such as die lines, flow lines, minor corrosion and scratches, that may occur on the aluminum surface. Although neither conventional or acid etch removes irregularities in the aluminum, acid etch does a better job of concealing them. This gives the material a better aesthetic finish on both primary and recycled aluminum extrusions.

* Desmut – Material is then moved to deoxidzing and desmutting process, which further prepares the aluminum surface for subsequent finishing. This step removes surface oxides. It also removes smut, which is a combination of intermetallics, metal and metal oxides remaining on the surface after cleaning and etching. And, it actives the surface for the electrochemical anodizing.

* Anodize – In the anodizing tank, the electrochemical oxidation of an aluminum surface takes place to produce a stable film of oxide. In this process, a porous, insulative layer composed of aluminum and oxygen is produced by passing electricity through the aluminum in a conductive medium. The basic structure of an anodic coating is based on a series of hexagonal columns of oxide, each with a central pore and a thin barrier layer separating the electrolyte in the base of the pores from the underlying metal.

* Electrolytic Color – The coloring of an anodic film is designed to enhance the appearance of the material and broaden the opportunity for anodized aluminum applications. In electrolytic coloring, or “two-step” coloring, anodizing is followed by the electro-deposition of a metal. AC power is used to deposit tin metal. Deposition takes place at the bottom of the pore. The intensity of the color is dependent on the amount of tin deposited and the packing density.

* Seal – After anodizing and coloring, the material is sealed in a mid-temperature hydrothermal seal and then given a final hot water rinse. This last, important step ensures that the high-quality anodized finishes will maintain their beauty and durability for many years.

Linetec_Anodize3

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Resources:

* Aluminum Anodizers Council
* The Aluminum Association
* American Architectural Manufacturers Association
* Linetec
* Tubelite Inc.

Watch for part 2 on anodizing in March and in “Architect’s Guide to Glass and Metal.”

**Tubelite_TomMinnon

Tom Minnon, LEED® AP, CDT, is the eastern region sales manager for Tubelite Inc., serving clients from Maine to Georgia. With nearly four decades of industry experience and many professional accreditations, he regularly provides educational and consultative support to architects, buildings owners and glazing contractors regarding storefront, curtainwall, entrances and daylight control systems.

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Shared Learnings: The Benefits of Natural Daylighting, part 3 of 3

by Tom Minnon, LEED® AP, CDT, Eastern Region Sales Manager for Tubelite Inc.

Daylighting and Retail
 
Recent studies report that daylighting can offer retail establishments a strong competitive advantage. This is supported by a study commissioned by PG&E that compares the retail sales performance of 108 stores operated by a large (unidentified) chain retailer. Two-thirds of the stores had skylighting, and the remaining one-third did not. Otherwise, the stores were very similar, with the same basic interior design, the same merchandise and all management and advertising handled by headquarters. Considering several factors, skylighting was found to have the largest impact, boosting a store’s sales index by an average of 40%.
 
The appearance of daylighting very often contributed to achieving a fresh appearance: clean, crisp, clear and bright. One effective application of daylight is incorporating skylights in the changing room to provide an opportunity for consumers to see natural skin tones, and fabric colors as they will be experienced outside of the store.
 
 

Walmart in Aurora, Colo., uses vertical clerestories to effective daylight the store. Photos courtesy of DOE/NREL, Credit – Pat Corkery.

Walmart in Aurora, Colo., uses vertical clerestories to effective daylight the store. Photos courtesy of DOE/NREL, Credit – Pat Corkery.

Wal-Mart Success Story
 
Many Wal-Mart stores and distribution centers around the world include a daylight harvesting system, which integrates skylights that dim or turn off interior electric lighting in response to the amount of daylight available. By using dimmable T-8 fluorescent lamps, electronic continuous dimming ballasts and computer controlled daylight sensors with approximately one skylight per every 1,000 square feet, they take full advantage of natural light when available.
 
Daylight harvesting is estimated to save up to 75% of the electric lighting energy used in the sales area of a supercenter during daylight hours. Each daylight harvesting system is estimated to save an average of 800,000 kWh per year, which is enough energy to power 73 single-family homes (11,020 kWh average annual usage) for an entire year.
 
Every facility Wal-Mart builds today from the ground up includes a skylight/dimming system. Nationwide, Wal-Mart builds or converts 200-300 facilities each year. All new stores will include the daylighting system.

NREL has been monitoring and evaluating more than 50 different technologies that Wal-Mart installed in its experimental Supercenter store in Aurora, Colorado, including daylighting. Photos courtesy of DOE/NREL, Credit – Pat Corkery

NREL has been monitoring and evaluating more than 50 different technologies that Wal-Mart installed in its experimental Supercenter store in Aurora, Colorado, including daylighting. Photos courtesy of DOE/NREL, Credit – Pat Corkery

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Resources:

* Tubelite Inc.
* Retail Skylighting (PDF)
* Architects’ Perception of Daylighting in Commercial Building Design
* Daylighting Collaborative
* Energy Design Resources
* Concepts for Daylight Harvesting (PDF)

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Shared Learnings: The Benefits of Natural Daylighting, part 2 of 3

by Tom Minnon, LEED® AP, CDT, Eastern Region Sales Manager for Tubelite Inc.

An integrated design balances the cooling load of the window against required daylight illumination levels, thereby capturing both cooling and lighting energy savings without creating discomfort. A poor design imposes a substantial cooling load and creates glare. Achieving this balance requires careful and informed design and engineering.

Daylighting requires the participation and cooperation of multiple disciplines — architecture, lighting design and mechanical system design in conjunction with proper glass selection. Even when the proper components are selected, poor design and commissioning practices often lead to unreliable performance and uncomfortable work environments.

Control the Glare

Glare from natural sunlight can offset any positive attributes of daylighting. Glare will contribute to eyestrain and reduced productivity. Care must be taken in how daylight is allowed into the building without causing glare.

Some design elements may include:

* Exterior sunshades – Effective on south facing elevations only and may not have a positive effect during the winter months when the sun is low in the sky

Tubelite Inc. – Max/Block™ Sun Shade

* Translucent (as opposed to transparent) glazing – Very effective when used in skylighting applications

* Light redirecting systems – Light louvers or light shelves are effective at both controlling the glare as well as redirecting light toward the ceiling.

LightLouver LLC

* Manually or automatically controlled blinds – Consider blinds between the glass to avoid damage and eliminate cleaning

Wausau Window and Wall Systems – projected window with integral blinds

* Electrochromic or thermochromic glazing – Tints the glass either electronically or by natural solar heat.

SAGE Electrochromics

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Resources:

* Tubelite Inc.
* Light Louver LLC
* Wausau Window and Wall Systems
* SAGE Electrochromics
* Daylighting Collaborative

Watch for part three and three on daylighting in January and in “Architect’s Guide to Glass and Metal.”

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Tom Minnon, LEED® AP, CDT, is the eastern region sales manager for Tubelite Inc., serving clients from Maine to Georgia. With nearly four decades of industry experience and many professional accreditations, he regularly provides educational and consultative support to architects, buildings owners and glazing contractors regarding storefront, curtainwall, entrances and daylight control systems.

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Shared Learnings: The Benefits of Natural Daylighting, part 1 of 3

by Tom Minnon, LEED® AP, CDT, Eastern Region Sales Manager for Tubelite Inc.

mattophoto architectural photographyAs winter approaches, and the amount of daylight decreases, it’s important to realize the positive effects of natural daylight. The lack of daylight has been documented to cause Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD), maladjustment of our body clocks (circadian rhythms) and consistent periods of reduced productivity and enthusiasm. One solution is providing a well-lit space, with as much natural light as possible. Daylighting provides superior quality, full-spectrum, flicker-free light that positively impacts behavior. In study after study, daylighting is correlated to dramatic improvements in human performance in retail, workplace, educational and health care facilities.

Daylight is a full spectrum source of visible light. That is, it imparts the same spectral distribution as sunlight. Unlike electric lights, which sometimes provide a limited spectral range that is concentrated in the blue/green or yellow/green range, daylight is best suited to human vision. Daylight can also provide various illumination levels through proper design. These inherent characteristics of daylight contribute to improved lighting quality by enhancing color discrimination and rendering. Working by daylight is believed to result in less stress and discomfort.

Turn Off the Lightsmattophoto architectural photography

Daylighting saves dollars by using controls to automatically turn off the electric lights when interior daylight levels are sufficient for the task. This reduces both lighting and cooling costs, since reduced electric lighting cuts cooling loads. Daylight is inherently more efficient than electric light, contributing substantially less heat to a space for the same amount of light.

Electric lighting comprises 515,000,000 MWh or 20 percent of the nation’s electricity consumption. Of this total, approximately 10-15 percent is used to light a building’s perimeter zone where daylight is already present. For daytime-occupied commercial buildings, research projections show that total electricity and peak demand savings of 20-40 percent in lighting and its associated cooling energy can be achieved with the proper use of dimmable daylighting controls throughout the United States. Daylighting a building properly is like adding an alternative energy power plant that produces zero carbon emissions.

 

mattophoto architectural photographyDesigning for Daylight

Daylighting strategies and architectural design strategies are inseparable. Daylight not only replaces artificial lighting, reducing lighting energy use, but also influences both heating and cooling loads. Planning for daylight therefore involves integrating the perspectives and requirements of various specialties and professionals. Daylighting design starts with the selection of a building site and continues as long as the building is occupied.

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Resources:

Architects’ Perception of Daylighting in Commercial Building Design

Daylighting Collaborative

Energy Design Resources

Concepts for daylight harvesting (PDF)

Watch for part two and three on daylighting in December and January and in “Architect’s Guide to Glass and Metal.”

**

Tom Minnon, LEED® AP, CDT, is the eastern region sales manager for Tubelite Inc., serving clients from Maine to Georgia. With nearly four decades of industry experience and many professional accreditations, he regularly provides educational and consultative support to architects, buildings owners and glazing contractors regarding storefront, curtainwall, entrances and daylight control systems.

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